An algorithm for describing optimal linear combinations in the feature selection process is considered. Various proofs are presented.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMBINATIONS (MATHEMATICS), CONVERGENCE, MATRICES...

The upwind factorizable schemes for the equations of fluid were introduced recently. They facilitate achieving the Textbook Multigrid Efficiency (TME) and are expected also to result in the solvers of unparalleled robustness. The approach itself is very general. Therefore, it may well become a general framework for the large-scale, Computational Fluid Dynamics. In this paper we outline the triangular grid formulation of the factorizable schemes. The derivation is based on the fact that the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UPWIND SCHEMES (MATHEMATICS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

This paper deals with multigrid methods for computational problems that arise in the theory of bifurcation and is restricted to the self adjoint case. The basic problem is to solve for arcs of solutions, a task that is done successfully with an arc length continuation method. Other important issues are, for example, detecting and locating singular points as part of the continuation process, switching branches at bifurcation points, etc. Multigrid methods have been applied to continuation...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BRANCHING (MATHEMATICS), COMPUTATIONAL GRIDS, LIMITS...

The use of the theta-operator method and generalized hypergeometric functions in obtaining solutions to nth-order linear ordinary differential equations is explained. For completeness, the analysis of the differential equation to determine whether the point of expansion is an ordinary point or a regular singular point is included. The superiority of the two methods shown over the standard method is demonstrated by using all three of the methods to work out several examples. Also included is a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, SERIES (MATHEMATICS), FACTORIALS,...

A simple and efficient computational method is presented for unstructured surface grid generation. This method is built upon an advancing front technique combined with grid projection. The projection technique is based on a Newton-Raphson method. This combined approach has been successfully implemented for structured and unstructured grids. In this paper, the implementation for unstructured grid is discussed.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NEWTON-RAPHSON METHOD, UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS (MATHEMATICS), GRID...

This paper demonstrates continuous optimization on the differentiable manifold formed by continuous constraint functions. The first order tensor geodesic differential equation is solved on the manifold in both numerical and closed analytic form for simple nonlinear programs. Advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional optimization techniques are discussed.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MANIFOLDS (MATHEMATICS), OPTIMIZATION, CONSTRAINTS,...

The stability of a frequency response curve under mild perturbations of the system's matrix is investigated. Using recent developments in the theory of singularities of differentiable maps, it is shown that the stability of a response curve depends on the structure of the system's matrix. In particular, the frequency response curves of a cylic system are shown to be unstable. Consequently, slight parameter variations engendered by mistuning will induce a significant difference in the topology...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DYNAMIC STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, FREQUENCY RESPONSE, TUNING,...

A physicist with an engineering background, the author presents a mathematical dictionary containing material encountered over many years of study and professional work at NASA. This work is a compilation of the author's experience and progress in the field of study represented and consists of personal notes and observations that can be used by students in physics and engineering.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DICTIONARIES, PHYSICS, EDUCATION, ENGINEERING, MATHEMATICS,...

A necessary condition for a real valued Frechet differentiable function of a vector variable have an extremum at a vector x sub 0 is that the Frechet derivative vanishes at x sub 0. A relationship between Frechet differentials and matrix derivatives was established that obtains a necessary condition on the matrix derivative at an extrema. These results are applied to various scalar functions of matrix variables which occur in statistical pattern recognition.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATRICES (MATHEMATICS), OPTIMIZATION, PATTERN RECOGNITION,...

A compact differentiation technique (without using indexes) is developed for scalar functions that depend on complex matrix arguments which are combined by operations of complex conjugation, transposition, addition, multiplication, matrix inversion and taking the direct product. The differentiation apparatus is developed in order to simplify the solution of extremum problems of scalar functions of matrix arguments.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FORMULAS (MATHEMATICS), MATRICES (MATHEMATICS), PROBLEM...

The problem of solving banded linear systems by direct (non-iterative) techniques on the Vector Processor System (VPS) 32 supercomputer is considered. Two efficient direct methods for solving banded linear systems on the VPS 32 are described. The vector cyclic reduction (VCR) algorithm is discussed in detail. The performance of the VCR on a three parameter model problem is also illustrated. The VCR is an adaptation of the conventional point cyclic reduction algorithm. The second direct method...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATION, LINEAR EQUATIONS, SUPERCOMPUTERS,...

This contractor report describes a performance comparison of available alternative complete Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) methods and implementations which are suitable for incorporation into point spread function deconvolution algorithms. The report also presents a survey of alternative algorithms, including partial SVD's special case SVD's, and others developed for concurrent processing systems.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, APPLICATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, DATA...

The formulas include a stepsize control procedure, based on a complete coverage of the leading term of the truncation error in x. The formulas require fewer evaluations per stop than other Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas if the latter are operated by using the standard procedure for stepsize control. An example is presented. With results being of the same accuracy, Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas discussed save 50 percent or more computer time compared with other Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONTROL, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, FORMULAS (MATHEMATICS),...

The deficiencies of the theories that characterize the maximal compact invariant set of T as asymptotically stable, and that some iterate of T has a fixed point are discussed. It is shown that this fixed point condition is always satisfied for condensing and local dissipative T. Applications are given to a class of neutral functional differential equations.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BANACH SPACE, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY,...

The multigrid method (MGM), used to numerically solve the pair of nonlinear elliptic equations commonly used to generate two dimensional boundary-fitted coordinate systems is discussed. Two different geometries are considered: one involving a coordinate system fitted about a circle and the other selected for an impinging jet flow problem. Two different relaxation schemes are tried: one is successive point overrelaxation and the other is a four-color scheme vectorizeable to take advantage of a...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COORDINATES, ELLIPTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, GRID GENERATION...

Risk decomposition and ring theory, lattice techniques and universal algebras, and unary functions are considered.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), DECOMPOSITION, ONBOARD DATA PROCESSING, REMOTE SENSING,...

Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTER TECHNIQUES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, TENSOR ANALYSIS,...

Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), NOZZLE DESIGN, GRID GENERATION (MATHEMATICS), COMPUTATIONAL...

The explicit stability constraint of the discontinuous Galerkin method applied to the diffusion operator decreases dramatically as the order of the method is increased. Block Jacobi and block Gauss-Seidel preconditioner operators are examined for their effectiveness at accelerating convergence. A Fourier analysis for methods of order 2 through 6 reveals that both preconditioner operators bound the eigenvalues of the discrete spatial operator. Additionally, in one dimension, the eigenvalues are...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EIGENVALUES, GALERKIN METHOD, DISCRETIZATION (MATHEMATICS),...

The status of singular value loop-shaping as a design paradigm for multivariable feedback systems is reviewed. It shows that this paradigm is an effective design tool whenever the problem specifications are spacially round. The tool can be arbitrarily conservative, however, when they are not. This happens because singular value conditions for robust performance are not tight (necessary and sufficient) and can severely overstate actual requirements. An alternate paradign is discussed which...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPENSATORS, FEEDBACK CONTROL, MATRICES (MATHEMATICS),...

An advancing front grid generation system for structured Overset grids is presented which automatically modifies Overset structured surface grids and control lines until user-specified grid qualities are achieved. The system is demonstrated on two examples: the first refines a space shuttle fuselage control line until global truncation error is achieved; the second advances, from control lines, the space shuttle orbiter fuselage top and fuselage side surface grids until proper overlap is...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EXPERT SYSTEMS, FEEDBACK CONTROL, GRID GENERATION...

The upwind factorizable schemes for the equations of fluid was introduced recently. They facilitate achieving the Textbook Multigrid Efficiency (TME) and are expected also to result in the solvers of unparalleled robustness. The approach itself is very general. Therefore, it may well become a general framework for the large-scale Computational Fluid Dynamics. In this paper we outline the triangular grid formulation of the factorizable schemes. The derivation is based on the fact that the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UPWIND SCHEMES (MATHEMATICS), UNSTRUCTURED GRIDS...

In this research period a synthesis methodology for multifunctional robust aeroservoelastic systems was developed. The development consisted of the following stages: (1) development of an universal diagram to determine phase and gain margins of a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system using singular value based stability margin criteria; (2) determination of singular value gradients with respect to design parameters and their application to improve stability margins of multiloop system; and (3)...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ACTIVE CONTROL, AEROELASTICITY, FEEDBACK CONTROL, LOADS...

Structured approaches based on Kronecker operators for the description and solution of the infinitesimal generator of a continuous-time Markov chains are receiving increasing interest. However, their main advantage, a substantial reduction in the memory requirements during the numerical solution, comes at a price. Methods based on the "potential state space" allocate a probability vector that might be much larger than actually needed. Methods based on the "actual state...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MARKOV CHAINS, MATRICES (MATHEMATICS), OPERATORS...

The Denavit-Hartenberg parameters characterize the joint axis systems in a robot arm and, naturally, appear in the transformation matrices from one joint axis system to another. These parameters are needed in the control of robot arms and in the passage of sensor information along the arm. This paper presents a vector algebra method to determine these parameters for any assembled robot arm. The idea is to measure the location of the robot hand (or extension) for different joint angles and then...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ARM (ANATOMY), MATRICES (MATHEMATICS), ROBOTS,...

The parallel variable metric optimization algorithms of Straeter (1973) and van Laarhoven (1985) are reviewed, and the possible drawbacks of the algorithms are noted. By including Davidon (1975) projections in the variable metric updating, researchers can generalize Straeter's algorithm to a family of parallel projected variable metric algorithms which do not suffer the above drawbacks and which retain quadratic termination. Finally researchers consider the numerical performance of one member...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, CONVERGENCE, FUNCTIONS (MATHEMATICS),...

This report summarizes the research undertaken, at Aeronautics Department of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, during the approximately five year period, February 94 - March 99. This work is part of a larger effort aimed at providing a reliable fast turn around capability for the prediction of hypersonic flows over complete vehicle configurations.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), RESEARCH, HYPERSONIC FLOW, GRID GENERATION (MATHEMATICS),...

In many years of research, a number of powerful theorem-proving systems have arisen with differing capabilities and strengths. Resolution theorem provers (such as Kestrel's KITP or SRI's SNARK) deal with first-order logic with equality but not the principle of mathematical induction. The Boyer-Moore theorem prover excels at proof by induction but cannot deal with full first-order logic. Both are highly automated but cannot accept user guidance easily. The purpose of this project, and the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INDUCTION (MATHEMATICS), MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, THEOREM PROVING,...

The effective parallel symbolic computation of operators under composition is discussed. Examples include differential operators under composition and vector fields under the Lie bracket. Data structures consisting of formal linear combinations of rooted labeled trees are discussed. A multiplication on rooted labeled trees is defined, thereby making the set of these data structures into an associative algebra. An algebra homomorphism is defined from the original algebra of operators into this...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COMPUTATION, OPERATORS (MATHEMATICS), TREES...

An approach that efficiently solves for a desired parameter of a system or device that can include both electrically large fast multipole method (FMM) elements, and electrically small QR elements. The system or device is setup as an oct-tree structure that can include regions of both the FMM type and the QR type. An iterative solver is then used to determine a first matrix vector product for any electrically large elements, and a second matrix vector product for any electrically small elements...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BROADBAND, MULTIPOLES, VECTORS (MATHEMATICS), MATRICES...

An approach is defined that describes a method of iterating over massively large arrays containing sparse data using an approach that is implementation independent of how the contents of the sparse arrays are laid out in memory. What is unique and important here is the decoupling of the iteration over the sparse set of array elements from how they are internally represented in memory. This enables this approach to be backward compatible with existing schemes for representing sparse arrays as...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ITERATION, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, LAYOUTS, MATRICES...

Objectives: Handle complex geometry problems; Control discretization errors via solution-adaptive mesh refinement; Focus on aerodynamic databases of parametric and optimization studies: 1. Accuracy: satisfy prescribed error bounds 2. Robustness and speed: may require over 105 mesh generations 3. Automation: avoid user supervision Obtain "expert meshes" independent of user skill; and Run every case adaptively in production settings.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS, ROBUSTNESS (MATHEMATICS), GRID...

A direct method for constrained-function minimization is discussed. The method involves the construction of an appropriate function mapping all of one finite dimensional space onto the region defined by the constraints. Functions which produce such a transformation are constructed for a variety of constraint regions including, for example, those arising from linear and quadratic inequalities and equalities. In addition, the computational performance of this method is studied in the situation...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSTRAINTS, FUNCTIONS (MATHEMATICS), OPTIMIZATION,...

The supplement furnishes a theoretical proof containing the experimentally determined advantage for the connection of capacitance C sub 0 between the insulated frame and ground according to the arrangement presented in the article.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ELECTRIC POTENTIAL, INDUCTANCE, TRANSFORMERS, ANALYSIS...

Consider an (n,k) linear code with symbols from GF(2 sup m). If each code symbol is represented by a binary m-tuple using a certain basis for GF(2 sup m), a binary (nm,km) linear code called a binary image of the original code is obtained. A lower bound is presented on the minimum weight enumerator for a binary image of the extended (2 sup m, 2 sup m -4) code of Reed-Solomon code over GF(2 sup m) with generator polynomical (x - alpha)(x- alpha squared)(x - alpha cubed) and its dual code, where...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ERROR CORRECTING CODES, LINEAR EQUATIONS, SYMBOLS, MATRICES...

Backward error analyses of the application of Householder transformations to both the standard and the generalized eigenvalue problems are presented. The analysis for the standard eigenvalue problem determines the error from the application of an exact similarity transformation, and the analysis for the generalized eigenvalue problem determines the error from the application of an exact equivalence transformation. Bounds for the norms of the resulting perturbation matrices are presented and...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), EIGENVALUES, ERROR ANALYSIS, TRANSFORMATIONS (MATHEMATICS),...

A numerical method is reported which determines a value C for the degree of conditioning of a matrix. This value is C = 0 for a singular matrix and has progressively larger values for matrices which are increasingly well-conditioned. This value is C sub = C max sub max (C defined by the precision of the computer) when the matrix is perfectly well conditioned.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), MATRICES (MATHEMATICS), NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, SINGULARITY...

It is shown that the eigenvalues Z sub i of the pseudospectral Fourier approximation to the operator sin(2x) curly d/curly dx satisfy (R sub e) (Z sub i) = + or - 1 or (R sub e)(Z sub I) = 0. Whereas this does not prove stability for the Fourier method, applied to the hyperbolic equation U sub t = sin (2x)(U sub x) - pi x pi; it indicates that the growth in time of the numerical solution is essentially the same as that of the solution to the differential equation.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), APPROXIMATION, EIGENVALUES, FOURIER ANALYSIS, OPERATORS...

This paper introduces a general version of the information matrix consisting of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation matrices of the shifted input and output data. Based on the concept of data correlation, a new system realization algorithm is developed to create a model directly from input and output data. The algorithm starts by computing a special type of correlation matrix derived from the information matrix. The special correlation matrix provides information on the...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION, DATA CORRELATION, ALGORITHMS, MATRICES...

We introduce a new family of Godunov-type semi-discrete central schemes for multidimensional Hamilton-Jacobi equations. These schemes are a less dissipative generalization of the central-upwind schemes that have been recently proposed in series of works. We provide the details of the new family of methods in one, two, and three space dimensions, and then verify their expected low-dissipative property in a variety of examples.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), UPWIND SCHEMES (MATHEMATICS), COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS,...

Despite great advancements in the parallelization of numerical simulation codes over the last 20 years, it is still common to perform grid generation in serial. Generating large scale grids in serial often requires using special "grid generation" compute machines that can have more than ten times the memory of average machines. While some parallel mesh generation techniques have been proposed, generating very large meshes for LES or aeroacoustic simulations is still a challenging...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, GRID GENERATION (MATHEMATICS), GRID...

This paper considers an algorithm for synthesis of optimal controllers for full information feedback. The synthesis procedure reduces to a single linear matrix inequality which may be solved via established convex optimization algorithms. The computational cost of the optimization is investigated. It is demonstrated the problem dimension and corresponding matrices can become large for practical engineering problems. This algorithm represents a process that is impractical for standard...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), FLEXIBLE BODIES, CONTROLLERS, ALGORITHMS, CONTROL SYSTEMS...

Tensor analysis is the type of subject that can make even the best of students shudder. My own post-graduate instructor in the subject took away much of the fear by speaking of an implicit rhythm in the peculiar notation traditionally used, and helped us to see how this rhythm plays its way throughout the various formalisms. Prior to taking that class, I had spent many years "playing" on my own with tensors. I found the going to be tremendously difficult but was able, over time, to...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), STUDENTS, TENSOR ANALYSIS, PHYSICS, ANALYSIS (MATHEMATICS),...

This paper presents a general method for calculating the inverse kinematics with singularity and joint limit robustness for both redundant and non-redundant serial-link manipulators. Damped least squares inverse of the Jacobian is used with dynamic weighting matrices in approximating the solution. This reduces specific joint differential vectors. The algorithm gives an exact solution away from the singularities and joint limits, and an approximate solution at or near the singularities and/or...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), INVERSE KINEMATICS, MANIPULATORS, ROBUSTNESS (MATHEMATICS),...

Many parallel processing networks can be viewed as graphs called k-ary n-cubes, whose special cases include rings, hypercubes and toruses. In this paper, combinatorial properties of k-ary n-cubes are explored. In particular, the problem of characterizing the subgraph of a given number of nodes with the maximum edge count is studied. These theoretical results are then used to compute a lower bounding function in branch-and-bound partitioning algorithms and to establish the optimality of some...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGORITHMS, COMBINATORIAL ANALYSIS, COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,...

Technique has been developed for determining values of selected subsets of independent variables in mathematical formulations. Required computation time increases with first power of the number of variables. This is in contrast with classical minimization methods for which computational time increases with third power of the number of variables.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ANALYSIS (MATHEMATICS), APPLICATIONS OF MATHEMATICS, DATA...

Let A denote a bialgebra over a field k and let A sub t = A((t)) denote the ring of formal power series with coefficients in A. Assume that A is also isomorphic to a free, associative algebra over k. A simple construction is given which makes A sub t a bialgebra deformation of A. In typical applications, A sub t is neither commutative nor cocommutative. In the terminology of Drinfeld, (1987), A sub t is a quantum group. This construction yields quantum groups associated with families of trees.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), ALGEBRA, GROUP THEORY, TREES (MATHEMATICS), COMMUTATION,...

The dynamic distribution of faults in a general type network is discussed. The starting point is a uniquely branched network in which each pair of nodes is connected by a single branch. Mathematical expressions for the uniquely branched network transition matrix are derived to show that sufficient stationarity exists to ensure the validity of the use of the Markov Chain model to analyze networks. In addition the conditions for the use of Semi-Markov models are discussed. General mathematical...

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BRANCHING (MATHEMATICS), ERROR ANALYSIS, NETWORK ANALYSIS,...

The purpose of this research was to attack statistical problems concerning the estimation of distributions for purposes of predicting and measuring assembly performance as it appears in biological and physical situations. Various statistical procedures were proposed to attack problems of this sort, that is, to produce the statistical distributions of the outcomes of biological and physical situations which, employ characteristics measured on constituent parts. The techniques are described.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, TRANSFORMATIONS...

The limit series for the Euler-Mascheroni constants is represented as an integral. Using this new representation, the first 200 values are computed along with assorted others up to 2000. The first 13 roots of gamma sub n, where n is a positive continuous variable, are also given.

Topics: NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS), CONSTANTS, INTEGRALS, SERIES (MATHEMATICS), LIMITS...